There are many reasons why your poor pup could be itchy and scratchy. But is your dog constantly scratching, seemingly without cause and often without even making contact? This is called phantom scratching, but it’s no figment of Fido’s imagination. Phantom scratching is real, and it can be a real nightmare.
A Neurologic Reason Why Your Dog is Constantly Scratching
Reasons for excessive scratching in dogs can range from ear infections to dental disease, but severe itching in dogs is often written off as allergies. Dogs can be allergic to their environment, food, fleas… anything. This is probably why the cause of phantom scratching might be the most misdiagnosed neurologic condition there is.
Chiari-like Malformation and Syringomyelia in Dogs
Chiari-like malformation (CM) is a genetic neurologic condition characterized by abnormal growth of bone in the back of the skull, basically making the skull too small for the brain.
Pressure created from this tight space affects the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. This can result in fluid-filled cysts forming within the spinal cord, a secondary condition known as syringomyelia (SM). Unfortunately, as the cysts expand over time, they ultimately damage the center of the spinal cord.
Common Dog Breeds Affected by CM and SM
These conditions are generally rare, but toy breeds are overrepresented, especially Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Brussels Griffons. In fact, CM and SM should be disclosed as top Cavalier King Charles Spaniel health issues, as they virtually all have Chiari-like malformation to some degree.
However, it is important to note that not all dogs with one or both conditions will show symptoms.
Symptoms of Chiari-like Malformation and Syringomyelia in Dogs
Typically, symptoms become apparent once Chiari-like malformation results in syringomyelia. The most obvious symptom is neuropathic pain, or the abnormal processing of sensory input by the nervous system.
The altered sensation usually occurs at the back of the head and neck, which is why owners find their dogs constantly scratching at the air with no relief (phantom scratching).
Other symptoms vary among breeds and individuals, but these are the most common signs of syringomyelia in dogs:
- Phantom scratching
- Scratching at ears, neck, or back of head
- Rubbing at face
- Sensitive when touched around back of neck or shoulders
- Pain when active, excited, passing stool, or simply wearing collar/harness
- Change in behavior (lowered head, less playful, or withdrawn)
- Limb weakness or incoordination
- Scoliosis (curved spine)
Treatment of Chiari-like Malformation and Syringomyelia in Dogs
Your veterinary neurologist will consider breed, age, history, and symptoms during physical and neurological exams, but the only way to diagnose CM/SM, rule out other health problems, and decide on a treatment course is with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI).
Medical treatment involves some combination of pain management, anti-inflammatories, and medications that reduce the production of cerebrospinal fluid. Unfortunately, studies show only about 10% of dogs improving from medical management alone long-term.
Surgical treatment involves removing malformed bone at the back of the skull to make more space for cerebrospinal fluid to flow out of the brain. Surgery can be much more effective for the right patient, with some studies showing over 80% of patients improving immediately and a majority sustaining improved quality of life for the 2-3 years they were followed.
Prognosis for Chiari-like Malformation and Syringomyelia in Dogs
Chiari-like malformation and the subsequent development of syringomyelia are congenital diseases that cannot be prevented or cured. However, through early diagnosis, progression can be slowed, pet parents can be better prepared, and passing those traits to future generations can be stopped.
At Southeast Veterinary Neurology, we offer a heavily discounted screening package for at-risk breeds that do not currently have symptoms to identify the conditions as early as possible. This is particularly useful in responsible breeding, as we can determine whether or not a dog should be bred and even what a suitable mate’s results should look like.
Most importantly, advanced screening will help provide the best achievable outcome for your furry friend’s future.
See a Veterinary Neurologist if Your Dog is Constantly Scratching
Although neither condition can be cured, a highly specialized veterinary neurologist at Southeast Veterinary Neurology can not only put an end to your dog constantly scratching, but also add years of happiness to your prized pupper’s life.
So if you have an at-risk breed – or if your dog is scratching, but no fleas – please contact a neurologist at our Miami, Boynton Beach or Jupiter location as soon as possible. Our staff is standing by 24/7 to offer support.